In 1976, a Soviet pilor named Viktor Belenko defected by flying his flying his MiG-25 “Foxbat” jet fighter to Hakodate, Japan. The USSR demanded the plane back. Japan complied but only after letting American engineers examine and test-run it. Japan then took it apart, shipped it back piece by piece, and billed the USSR $40,000 for shipping and labor costs!
Japanese Infantry Weapons
The graphic above is a breakdown of the Japanese Empire’s main small arms and infantry weapons during World War Two compiled by the US Army Information Branch for an edition of Newsmap. The graphic includes not only the pistols, rifle and machine guns used by the Japanese but also their light artillery, mortars and Anti-Tank guns. While the graphic labels most of the weapons as ‘model’ the more commonly used description is ‘type’. The numerical designation of Japanese weapons usually comes from the year of the Emperor’s reign in which the weapon entered service. For example the Type 41 was introduced in the 41st year (1908) of Emperor Meiji’s reign (1867-1912).
The top left panel includes a number of infantry anti-tank guns including the 47mm Type 1 which was introduced in 1929 and was also used to arm the Type 97 Chi-Ha tank. The Type 11 37mm infantry gun which had been in service since 1922.
Type 11 37mm gun, c.1933 (source)
Also included is the Type 94, a longer barrelled 37mm gun based on the German PaK 36. The Type 92 Battalion Gun (centre right & image #5) is described as a 70mm howitzer which was introduced in 1932, with each infantry battalion being issued two. The other weapons in this panel are heavy machine guns and automatic cannons designed for anti-aircraft roles, although they were originally intended to act as anti-tank weapons as well. These include the wheeled 20mm Type 98 Machine Cannon (bottom left) and the twin mounted 13mm Type 93 which entered service in 1933.
Twin Mounted 13mm Type 93 Anti-Aircraft machine canon (source)
The last weapon of note in the first panel is the 20mm Type 97 automatic rifle, shown with the protective shield which could be fitted. The Type 97 was a semi-automatic anti tank rifle which was adopted in the late 1930s. While its self-loading action made for a high rate of fire the recoil from the 20mm cartridge was heavy and under 500 were made.
In the next panel on the right are the Imperial Japanese military’s machine guns. The first is the Type 92 which had been adopted in 1932, the Type 92 was Japan’s workhorse heavy machine gun chambered in the standard 7.7×58mm rimless round it was fed from a relatively short 30-round metal strip which made sustained fire difficult.
A captured Type 92 (source)
The rest of the weapons in the second panel are light machine guns, the newer Type 99 introduced in 1939 and chambered in the same 7.7×58mm rimless round as the Type 92 (image #3).The older Type 11 and Type 96, both chambered in the earlier semi-rimmed 6.5×50mm cartridge. This shows the complexity of the Japanese ammunition situation during World War Two with a variety of small arms in two different calibres. The Type 11, introduced in 1922, famously fed from stripper clips fed into a 30 round hopper - while this was intended to harmonise the ammunition supply with the average infantryman the weapon’s feed system was complex and prone to feed problems. The Type 11 was superseded by the Type 96 in 1936, based on the Czech vz. 26 light machine gun the Type 96 fed more reliably from a 30-round top mounted detachable box magazine. With over 40,000 made by 1945 it was one of the most produced Japanese machine guns of the war.
Type 11 light machine gun with stripper clips ready to be loaded into the hopper (source)
Below the machine guns panel is a photograph of a Type 41 75mm mountain gun in action. Introduced in 1908 the Type 41, they saw action throughout the First World War, Japan’s campaigns in China and during the Second World War.
The third panel has the various Arisaka rifles used during the war, these again like the machine guns were chambered in 6.5×50mm and the later 7.7×58mm ammunition. The rifles include the Type 38 which was introduced in 1906, designed by Arisaka Nariakira along with Kijiro Nambu the Type 38 became the second most used rifle of World War Two with the later Type 99 (image #4), chambered in 7.7×58mm, being the Japanese Army’s primary service rifle from its adoption in 1939. Also featured are the Type 97 sniper rifle which was based on the Type 38 and had a prominent 2.5 power telescopic sight, and the Type 44 carbine which entered service in 1912 and featured a long folding bayonet. Based on Type 38 the carbine was just over 12 inches shorter. All of the Japanese military’s rifles fed from a internal 5-round magazine much like their European Mauser counterparts.
Japanese infantryman aims his rifle from cover, c.1940 (source)
The fourth panel features the Japanese military’s pistols featuring the entire Nambu series designed by Kijiro Nambu. All of the pistols were chambered in the 8×22mm Nambu cartridge. The three pistols featured are the original Type A Nambu pistol adopted 1906, the Type 14, the improved Type A and the Type 94, which is widely considered poorly designed and manufactured, was introduced in 1935 with approximately 70,000 made before 1945. The Type 14 was introduced in 1925 and as many as 400,000 were made. Like the earlier Nambu designs the Type 14 used a short recoil system with a locking breech, they were well balanced pistols but the 8×22mm cartridge was under powered.
Type 14 Nambu pistol (source)
Not featured is the Type 26 revolver which had been replaced by th Nambu but was issued to second line units during World War Two. Similarly the rarely seen Type 100 submachine gun - Japan’s only indigenous submachine gun design produced in any number is absent.
Type 100 Submachine Gun (source)
The final two panels comprise a selection of infantry mortars, hand grenades and mines. The mortars include the Type 98 50mm mortar and the 81mm and 90 mm Type 97 Infantry Mortars. Also featured is the Type 89 Grenade Discharger (see image #6), which was often incorrectly described as a knee mortar. The Type 89 entered wide scale production in the early 1930s and were used to fire the standard Type 91 fragmentation grenade or the Type 89 50 mm incendiary shell seen in image #6. These two shells can be see in the final panel at the bottom of the graphic. Next to these can be seen the Type 93 Pressure Anti-Tank/Personnel Mine, Type 99 anti-tank mine and a undesignated bangalore torpedo used to destroy barbed wire or fixed positions.
Newsmap, U.S. Army Service Forces, Army Information Branch, December 11, 1944 (source)
Military Small Arms of the 20th Century, I. Hogg, (1985)
Military Small Arms, G. Smith (1994)
Jane’s Guns Recognition Guide, I. Hogg, (2005)
How to fuck with anime fans:
Step 1) put a wig on your dog
In 1808, Napoleon, running out of scenic holiday destinations to invade, somehow totally forgot about his neighbor to the south, Spain. So that year he dispatched his troops, kicking off the Peninsular War.
Only 20 years old and working as a barmaid in the town of Valdepenas, Juana Galan was not expecting a surge of French soldiers to come storming through her village. But on June 6, that’s exactly what happened. At that time, most of the men were fighting Napoleon’s forces elsewhere in the nation. Juana, unfazed by things like rifles and Frenchmen and French riflemen, began organizing the women in her village to form a trap for the approaching army.
When the army arrived, Juana and her friends were ready. They dumped boiling water and oil on the French troops, which by all accounts will instantly take the fight out of pretty much anyone. Then Juana, armed with only a batan, beat back the heavily armed French cavalry with her squad of village women, almost none of whom were armed with guns.
The French retreated, giving up on capturing not just Juana’s town but the entire province of La Mancha, leading to ultimate Spanish victory. Today, she is seen in Spain as a national hero, a symbol of resistance, strength, patriotism, feminism and hitting shit with a stick.
1931 Swiss Grand Prix | Bern, Switzerland | Grosser Preis Der Schweiz | International Grand Prix Motorcycle Racing | Classic Retro Vintage Race Poster
I’ve been watching this for 5 minutes and giggling like an idiot.
Square Enix have delivered another trailer for Kingdom Hearts HD 2.5 Remix, the new HD compilation developed for PlayStation 3.
View the new HD trailer here.
SPECIAL RELEASE - EUROPE AT WAR!
NAZIS ATTACK POLAND AND BOMB CITIES IN LIGHTNING COUP - FRANCE & ENGLAND PREPARE TO STRIKE
This Week in Universal News: The Invasion of Poland, 1939
On September 1, 1939, Germany invaded Poland, marking the official start of the Second World War. Sixteen days later, Russia invaded Poland from the east. By the end of September, Poland had succumbed to the dual attacks divided between Russia and Germany following a secret nonaggression pact the two nations had signed the previous week. Although Polish military forces were overcome, a strong Polish resistance existed throughout the duration of the war.
The initial invasion prompted Universal to release a special edition on September 4th, 1939. The narration tracks for these reels no longer exist, but the audio for President Roosevelt’s neutrality speech has survived. (At roughly 5:50).
Via Today's Document
Video: Nick Offerman Recites Some Profound Shower Thoughts [gifs via]
Via The North Will Rise
I think when you find yourself talking to yourself in the mirror, playing lots of different characters, out of your dressing-up box you’re either gonna be schizophrenic or an actor.
Via Winter is Coming- Eventually
Next year, the United States Naval Reserve celebrates its centennial anniversary. In honor of this hallmark date, we will be posting a variety of images and stories related to the history of the Naval Reserve. Our very own historian, Dr. David Winkler, will release a coffee table book late this year. Here is an early USNR propaganda/recruitment poster from the WWI era. (LOC Image: LC-USZC4-7796)